ACID

Substance which when concentrated will burn the skin. Neutralises and the opposite to alkali. Examples include battery acid, sulphuric acid and hydrochloric acid.

ALKALI

Substance which when concentrated will burn the skin. Neutralises and the opposite to acid. Examples include, caustic soda and potash.

AS

Australian Standard followed by a number which denotes a particular publication.

ANGLE FACTOR

The factor by which the WLL of a multi-legged sling is de-rated to give its SWL at a particular angle between the sling legs.

ANTI-TWO-BLOCK DEVICE

See hoist-limiting device.

BS

British Standard followed by a number which denotes a particular publication.

BACK HOOKING

A method of slinging using slings with hooks where the sling is passed around the load and the hook is secured back onto the ring or hook above the load.

BACK SPLICE

A splice in the end of a fibre rope to prevent it from unlaying.

BALD EYE

An eye in a rope which is not protected by a thimble. It is also called a ‘soft eye’

BARROW HOIST

See cantilever platform materials hoist.

BASKET HITCH

A method of securing a sling around an object by bringing both eyes back together with an angle factor = 1.

BAYONET

A jib extension used with the auxiliary winch on a hydraulic boom crane and often extending from a fly jib to increase the crane’s operating radius and drift

BEARING JOINT

A bolted joint in steel erection designed to allow for some joint slip for alignment.

BECKET

An anchorage point on a sheave block when reeving a tackle or purchase.

BECKET LOAD

The load in any fall of rope in a multiple fall tackle or purchase. It equals the total load being lifted divided by the number of falls supporting the load.

BEND

A tie made in fibre rope to create a temporary eye (such as a bowline bend) or to join ropes (such as a sheet bend).

BIGHT

The middle portion of a length of rope. For example, a ‘bowline on the bight’ means a bowline formed in the middle of a rope.

BILL

The lower end point of a hook.

BIRDCAGING

A rope defect, springing or enlargement of a FSWR – usually in Lang’s Lay.

BLACK WIRE

See bright wire.

BLOCK

An appliance which supports one or more sheaves.

BLOCK AND TACKLE

A sheave block or blocks used with fibre rope.

BOATSWAIN’S CHAIR

A suspended scaffold where the platform is a chair or similar device suitable for use by one person.

BODY BELT

A safety belt designed to be worn around the waist and which does not have shoulder straps or leg straps.

BOOM

A member attached to and cantilevered from the crane structure from which the load is suspended. Can be luffed or sleeved while the crane is handling a load.

BOOM BUTT

The end of the boom nearest to the crane.

BOOM HEAD

The end of the boom furthest from the crane.

BOOM LIFT

See boom type elevating work platform.

BOOM TYPE ELEVATING WORK PLATFORM

A powered telescoping device, hinged device or articulated device or any combination of these used to support a platform on which personnel, equipment and materials may be elevated to perform work. Also known as ‘cherrypickers’.

BORDEAUX CONNECTION

A fitting used to connect a chain to FSWR where the connection is required to pass over a sheave.

BOTTLE SCREW

See rigging screw.

BOW SHACKLE:

A shackle with bowed sides.

BOWSING

See frapping.

BOWSTRING

A rope tensioned to a structural member to prevent it from distorting during lifting.

BREAKING FORCE

See guaranteed breaking strain (GBS).

BRIDGE CRANE

A powered crane consisting of one or more bridge beams mounted at each end to an end carriage that can travel along elevated runways. It may be cabin controlled or remote controlled (such as pendant control).

BRIGHT WIRE

Uncoated steel wire used in the construction of FSWR. Also known as ‘black wire’.

BRITISH DOCKS SPLICE

Orthodox 5 tuck eye splice in FSWR.

BUSH ROLLER CHAIN

Chain constructed with parallel flat links and cylindrical rollers, such as bicycle and motorcycle drive chains.

BUILDER’S HOIST

A hoist incorporating a mast or guides which is used on building and construction projects. It includes a cantilever platform materials hoist and a personnel and materials hoist.

BULLDOG GRIP

A wire rope grip consisting of a U-bolt, two nuts and a saddle.

CCLP

Cantilevered crane loading platform.

CABLE LAID ROPE

Three hawser laid fibre ropes laid up together in an opposite lay to form one rope. Cable laid ropes are often used for moorings.

CABLE PULLING STOCKING

A device used as a temporary join for two ropes where the join needs to pass over a sheave. It is used to haul a new rope onto a crane.

CALIBRATED CHAIN

Short link chain with parallel link sides constructed to very exact link lengths so it can ride smoothly over a gypsy. Commonly used on chain blocks. Also called ‘pitched short link chain

CANTILEVER

A beam, structural member or similar which is anchored at one end and which is free at the other end.

CANTILEVER PLATFORM MATERIALS HOIST

A powered builder’s hoist which has the lift platform cantilevered from the hoist tower. It moves materials only, up and down the face of a building or structure. Also called a ‘barrow hoist’.

CANTILEVERED CRANE LOADING PLATFORM

A temporary loading bay cantilevered from the face of a building or structure to land or lift crane-handled loads.

CAPSTAN WINCH

See warping drum.

CAT HEAD

The sheave assemblies on the top mast section of a builder’s hoist or the top of the A-frame on a tower crane.

CENTIMETER

A unit for measuring distance. 10mm equals one centimeter. 100cm equals 1m.

CHAIN BLOCK

A geared portable appliance used for hoisting a load suspended on a chain.

CHAIN PULLER

A geared portable appliance incorporating a load chain which is operated by a lever handle.

CHERRY PICKER

See boom type elevating work platform.

CHOKE HITCH

A method of securing a load to a sling or a sling to an anchorage by reeving the sling back through its eye, or fixing the eye back to the sling leg with a shackle.

CIRCUMFERENCE

The distance around the outside edge of a circle.

CLEVIS

An eye with a removable pin.

CLIMBING FRAME

An internal or external frame used to lift the crane from the tower sections of a tower crane for climbing up or down.

COME-ALONG

See chain puller or creeper winch.

CRADLE

The part of a suspended scaffold that incorporates the working platform.

CRANE

An appliance intended for raising and lowering a load and moving it horizontally, but excluding industrial lift trucks, earthmoving machinery, amusement structures, tractors, industrial robots, conveyors, building maintenance equipment, suspended scaffolds and lifts.

CRANE CHART

See load chart.

CRAWLER CRANE

See track mounted crane.

CREEPER WINCH

A portable manually operated winch for hoisting or haulage where an FSWR is moved through the winch by a gripping jaw mechanism.

CRIBBING

See pigsty.

CROSBY CLIP

See bulldog grip.

CUT SPLICE

A splice joining two fibre ropes which incorporates an eye.

DEAD END

The tail of a rope which does not take load.

DEAD LOAD

The self weight of a crane, hoist or scaffold before it is.

DEBRIS NET

A fine mesh net usually laid over an industrial safety net in order to catch small light items of falling debris

DEE SHACKLE

A shackle with parallel sides, resembling the letter D on its side.

DERRICK CRANE

A slewing strut-boom crane with the boom pivoted at the base of a mast which is either guyed (guy-derrick) or held by backstays (stiff-leg derrick). Can luff under load.

DIAMETER

The distance across a circle measured through its centre.

DIVERTING SHEAVE

A sheave set up to change the direction of the lead rope between the winch and the head sheave.

DOG KNOTTING

A method of finishing a splice in a fibre rope by halving each strand and knotting each half to the adjacent half strand. It prevents the splice from loosening during use.

DOGGING

The application of slinging techniques, including the selection or inspection of lifting gear, or the directing of a crane or hoist operator in the movement of a load when the load is out of the operator’s view.

DOMESTIC GRADE LADDER

A portable ladder designed and manufactured for light loads and intended for use by home handymen. It is not intended for industrial work.

DOUBLE BASE CLAMP

A wire rope grip with two or more bolts along a split barrel to minimise damage to the FSWR.

DOUBLE ROPE SUSPENDED SCAFFOLD

A scaffold where the cradle is suspended using two hoists and two suspension ropes at each support point.

DOUBLE THROAT WIRE ROPE GRIP

A wire rope grip which uses a saddle on each side to minimise damage to the FSWR.

DOUBLE WRAP

A method of slinging where the sling legs are passed twice around the load with the eye choked back to the sling. Often called a round turn.

DRAGLINE

A crane fitted with a bucket or scoop which is thrown outwards and retrieved by a drag cable arrangement.

DRIFT

1. A steel handtool consisting of a tapered shaft which is used to align bolt holes in structural steel connections. It is sometimes driven in with a flogging hammer to ‘drift’ the bolt holes into alignment.
OR
2. The distance between the upper and lower blocks of a tackle or purchase.  The drift determines the maximum height a load can be lifted.

DROlT

A brand name for excavators and loaders.

DRUM

The cylinder of a winch around which the rope is wound and stored. It may be plain or grooved.

DUAL COVERAGE

Work which can be performed by someone who holds either the appropriate class of rigging certificate or the appropriate class of scaffolding certificate, because the work is within the scope of both types of certificate.

DUAL LIFT

See multiple crane lift.

DUCK

A light canvas material similar to calico.

DUNNAGE

Packing under loads to allow the removal or placing of slings.

EOHTC

Electric overhead traveling crane – an electric powered bridge or gantry crane.

EWP

Elevating work platform.

EGG RING

The main (or master) ring to which the legs of a chain sling assembly are attached.

ELEVATING WORK PLATFORM

A telescoping device, scissor device or articulating device used to support a working platform.

END SPLICE

See back splice.

EQUALlSlNG BEAM

A lifting beam which can be used with two cranes to ensure that each crane is supporting its correct portion of the load.

EQUALlSlNG SHEAVES

Sheaves used to equalise the load.

EXTENSION LADDER

A portable ladder constructed in two or more stages which can be adjusted to vary the height of the ladder.

EYEBOLT

A lifting ring fixed to a threaded rod which can be screwed into a load or anchorage.

FC

Symbol used to indicate a fibre core in the construction of an FSWR.

FSWR

Flexible steel wire rope.

FW

Filler wire. It is used in some FSWR constructions to space and support the main wires in a strand.

FABRICATED HUNG SCAFFOLD

A pre-assembled scaffold hung from another structure but which is not capable of being raised or lowered when in use. It is sometimes used for large steel erection projects.

FACTOR OF SAFETY

The ratio of the minimum breaking load (or GBS) to the WLL or actual working load. For example, an FSWR with a safety factor of five has a WLL which is one fifth of its GBS.

FELLING

Various methods of demolition where a winch or earthmoving equipment is used to drag over a part of the building or structure.

FERRULE

A metal collar used in an FSWR eye splice to hold the rope parts together.

FLEET ANGLE

The angle formed from the centre line of the drum to the centre of the first lead sheave then back to the inside centre of the drum flange.

FLEETING

A method of moving an object by using two hoists, purchases or tackles to lift, haul and lower the load.

FLEMISH EYE

A method of forming an eye in FSWR by separating and re-marrying the strands without tucks.

FLOGGING HAMMER

A hammer designed to be held in one hand for driving drifts, cold chisels and the like. Commonly used in steel erection.

FLY

A secondary jib mounted at the head of the crane’s main boom or jib, increasing the crane’s operating radius and drift. Also called a ‘goose neck’.

FLYING FOX

An arrangement where a rope is suspended between two tower structures and which supports a carriage (or ‘fox’) from which a load may be raised, traversed and lowered.

FRAPPING

A lashing where several turns are passed around parts to pull a rope tighter. Also called a ‘bowsing’ lashing.

GBS

Guaranteed breaking strain.

GANTLINE

A fibre rope reeved through a single sheave block.

GANTRY CRANE

A powered crane with one or more bridge beams. The beams are supported at each end by legs mounted on traveling end carriages. They have a crab with one or more hoisting units that are able to travel across the bridge beam or beams. Used where there is no supporting building for the crane.

GEARED JACK

A geared mechanical device used to raise or lower loads.

GERMAN JACK

See geared jack.

GIN POLE

A guyed derrick without a pivoted strut-boom. It can raise and lower a load and a limited amount of slewing can be achieved by adjusting the guys.

GIN WHEEL

A purpose designed single sheave tackle block often used as a gantline during the erection and dismantling of scaffolds.

GIRDER CLAMP

An appliance designed to be fixed to the lower flange of a universal beam or RSJ to provide an anchorage for a sling, suspension rope, purchase or tackle.

GIRT

A horizontal structural member in a wall of a steel structure which supports the wall cladding sheets.

GOOSE NECK

See fly.

GUARANTEED BREAKING STRAIN

The load (or force) stated by the rope manufacturer as the rope’s breaking load when tested to failure in a new condition. The ratio between the GBS and the WLL is the factor of safety.

GRADE

Indicates the strength of chain, FSWR or other items manufactured from steel. The higher the grade of steel, the higher the tensile strength.

GROMMET

An endless sling constructed with a single rope strand layed up onto itself.

GUN TACKLE

A fibre rope tackle which uses an upper block with two sheaves and a lower block with two sheaves (two double blocks).

GUY

A tensioned rope fixed at one end to a mast, tower or structure and anchored some distance from the base to stabilise the structure.

GUYED DERRICK

A derrick (or derrick crane) stabilised by guys.

GYPSY

A sheave with pockets formed into its groove to take a load chain, such as on a chain block.

HAMBONE

See wedge socket.

HAMMERHEAD CRANE

A tower crane with a counter weighted horizontal boom which supports a traversing crab for hoisting.

HAMMERLOCK

An attachment for joining hooks or rings to a chain.

HANDY BILLY

A fibre rope tackle where one block has two sheaves and the other block has three sheaves (double and treble blocks). It is also called ‘light gin tackle’.

HAWSER LAID

A fibre rope construction which uses three strands.

HEAD BLOCK

The top block in a purchase, tackle or block at the head of a crane boom or hoist.

HEADACHE BALL

A spherical overhauling weight.

HEAVY DUTY WORKING PLATFORM

A scaffold platform with a duty live load capacity of 675kg per bay. This is three times the capacity of a light duty platform.

HEAVY GIN TACKLE

A fibre rope tackle where the upper block has three sheaves and the lower block has three sheaves (two treble blocks).

HELIX

The spiral put into a rope construction.

HIGH STRANDING

Rope damage indicated by one strand sitting up higher than the others in a portion of the rope.

HITCH

A tie made in a fibre rope to fix it to an anchorage or to a load. Common examples include the clove hitch, rolling hitch, becket (or buntline) hitch and timber hitch.

HOIST

An appliance used to raise or lower a load with no horizontal movement.

HOISTING

Raising or lowering a load.

HOIST-LIMITING DEVICE

A device used in a crane or hoist to stop the winch or warn the operator before the hook block jams into the head block (two-blocking) while the hook is being raised. It is also called an ‘anti-two-block device’.

HOOK BLOCK

The lower block on a crane which incorporates a hook for slinging loads.

HYDRAULIC BOOM CRANE

A crane which has a boom which luffs using hydraulic power and usually also telescopes using hydraulic power.

IWRC

Wire rope core in the construction of an FSWR.

IWS

Wire strand core in the construction of an FSWR.

INBOARD

The portion of a needle or other cantilevered beam between the fulcrum and end anchorage or centre of the counterweights.

INDUSTRIAL GRADE LADDER

A portable ladder designed and manufactured for general industrial use. This is the type of ladder for use in rigging work.

INDUSTRIAL SAFETY NET

A purpose designed net intended to catch a person falling from a building or structure.

JACK

An appliance which is placed under a load to raise or lower it.

JIB

A member attached to the crane structure from which the load is suspended. It can not be luffed while the crane is under load. Please note: In the past, ‘jib’ was often used to mean the same thing as ‘boom’.

JIB TROLLEY

A crab or saddle from which the load is suspended and which can traverse along the jib.

JOCKEY SHEAVE

A diverting sheave which can freely run along the length of an axle to reduce the fleet angle of the lead rope.

kg

Kilogram.

kPa

Kilopascal.

kN

Kilonewton.

KERNMANTLE CONSTRUCTION

A method of constructing synthetic fibre rope where a plaited sheath is layed over a parallel or twisted core. Kernmantle ropes are used with abseiling equipment and emergency rescue lines.

KIBBLE

A crane lifted vessel normally used for hoisting and pouring wet concrete.

KIDNEY BELT

See body belt.

KINKING

Damage to a rope indicated by a sharp permanent twist.

KILOGRAM

A unit for measuring mass (or weight). One litre of water weighs one kilogram. There are 1000kg in a tonne.

KILONEWTON

A unit for measuring force. One kilonewton is approximately equivalent to a weight of 100kg.

KILOPASCAL

A unit for measuring pressure or stress. One kilopascal is approximately equal to 100kg per square meter.

KNEE BRACE

A diagonal brace used to stiffen a column in a steel structure.

L

lndicates Grade 30 mild steel chain.

LH

lndicates left hand lay in a rope construction.

LL

lndicates Lang’s lay in an FSWR rope construction.

LANG’S LAY

A construction method for FSWR where the rope strands are laid in the same direction as the wires.

LANYARD

A short length of synthetic fibre rope used to attach a safety harness or body belt to an anchorage.

LATTICE BOOM CRANE

A crane with an open-web boom, usually in sections. It does not telescope. Sometimes called a ‘pin-jib crane’

LAY

The way a rope is constructed.

LEAD BLOCK

A block which diverts the line of pull in a winch hauling rope.

LEAD ROPE

The portion of rope between the lead block and the winch drum.

LEFT HAND LAY

A method of rope construction where the strands are laid up in an anti-clockwise direction. Sometimes called an ‘S twist’ because the strands run the same direction as the central part of the letter 's'.

LEVER HOIST

See Chain puller.

LIFELINE

A vertical, or near vertical rope to which a safety harness can be attached using a device that will grab the lifeline if the wearer slips.

LIFTING CLAMP

See plate clamp.

LIGHT DUTY WORKING PLATFORM

A platform on a scaffold with a duty live load capacity of 225kg per bay.

LIGHT GIN TACKLE

See ‘handy billy’

LIVE LOAD

The load being lifted (also called the ‘lifted load’ ) or the load of persons and materials supported by a scaffold platform in each bay.

LIVE ROPE

A moving rope.

LOAD BINDER CHAIN

Chain designed for securing loads to the trays of trucks. It is not designed for lifting.

LOAD CHART

A manufacturer’s notice fixed to a crane or hoist which specifies the SWLs in all normal operating configurations. It is also called a ‘load plate’ or ‘crane chart’.

LOAD FACTOR

The fraction of a sling assembly’s WLL created by a particular slinging method. It includes the angle factor and the reeve factor.

LOAD LIMITING DEVICE

Used with a power-operated scaffolding hoist, which cuts the hoist motor at a pre-set load to avoid overloading the rope or the suspension rig.

LOAD WEIGHT INDICATOR

A device which indicates the weight of the load being lifted.

LOCOMOTIVE CRANE

A crane designed and intended for use on railway tracks.

LONG SPLICE

A method of joining two ropes so that they can travel over sheaves without obstruction.

LOWER BLOCK

The bottom block in a tackle or purchase from which the load is suspended.

LUFF TACKLE

A fibre rope tackle where the upper block has two sheaves and the lower block has a single sheave (single and double blocks).

LUFFING

Raising or lowering the boom head of a crane.

M

The symbol used to indicate the diameter of a structural bolt in millimeters. For example, M16 indicates a 16mm bolt.

m

A meter – the unit for measuring distance.

mm

Millimeters. 1000mm equal one meter.

MPa

Megapascal.

MSDS

Material safety data sheet.

MAN AND MATERIALS HOIST

See personnel and materials hoist.

MANILA

Natural fibre used for rope construction. Has a creamy brown appearance when new.

MARLIN SPIKE

A tapered hand tool used to prise open the strands of an FSWR during splicing or during rope inspection.

MARLINE

Tarred hemp cordage used for MAST CLIMBER: A hoist with a working platform used for temporary purposes to raise personnel and materials to the working position. It has a drive system mounted on an extendable mast which may be tied to a building.

MATERIALS HOIST

A builder’s hoist used for raising and lowering materials (not personnel) including a cantilevered platform materials hoist.

MATERIAL SAFETY DATA SHEET

Manufacturer’s or supplier’s information about a substance, including any hazards associated with its transportation, storage and use.

MECHANICAL LOADSHIFTING EQUIPMENT

When used in connection with rigging, this term includes specified cranes, hoists, cableways, flying foxes, winches, blocks and purchases which incorporate sheaves, jacks and airbags.

MEDIUM DUTY WORKING PLATFORM

A platform on a scaffold with a duty live load capacity of 450kg per bay. This is twice the capacity of a light duty platform.

MEGAPASCAL

A unit for measuring pressure or stress. 1000 kilopascals equals 1 megapascal. 1 megapascal is approximately equal to 100 tonnes per square meter.

MOBILE CRANE

A crane which can travel over a supporting surface without the need for fixed runways or railway tracks and which relies on gravity for stability.

MOBILE SCAFFOLD

An independent free standing scaffold mounted on castors.

MOBILING

Moving a mobile crane over its supporting surface while it is under load.

MULTI-LEGGED SLING

A sling assembly with more than two sling legs.

MULTIPLE CRANE LIFT

The movement of a load where the load is suspended from two or more cranes.

NR

Symbol used to indicate non-rotating rope.

NEEDLE

A cantilevered structural member that supports a scaffold or load.

NIP

The point at which a rope or sling is gripped by a hitch.

NON-ROTATING ROPE

FSWR in which adjacent layers of strands are layed in opposite directions, ie alternatively right hand and left hand, to prevent the rope from spinning under load. Commonly used as a crane hoist rope.

NON-SLEWING MOBILE CRANE

A mobile crane which has a boom or jib that cannot be slewed. It includes an articulated type mobile crane and a locomotive crane.

OL

Symbol used to indicate ordinary lay rope construction.

ON RUBBER

The operation of a truck mounted or rough terrain mobile crane without the aid of outriggers.

OPEN WEDGE SOCKET

See wedge socket.

ORDINARY LAY

A method of FSWR construction where the strands are laid in the opposite direction to the outer layer of wires. Referred to in North American manuals as ‘regular lay’.

OUTBOARD

The portion of a needle or other cantilevered beam between its fulcrum and its outermost attachment point.

OUTRIGGER

A stabilising extension for a mobile crane.

OVERHAULING WEIGHT

Counterweight to overhaul the self-weight of an unloaded hoisting rope.

OVERWOUND

Rope winding on and off the top side of a winch drum.

P

Symbol used to indicate Grade 40 chain.

PARBUCKLING

A method of moving a large cylinder up or down a ramp using one or more ropes to haul it or control its descent.

PARCELLING

Covering a splice with strips of duck or canvas before serving.

PARACHUTE HARNESS

See ‘safety harness’.

PARTS OF ROPE

See ‘falls’.

PENDANT

A rope used to provide support to a length of crane boom or jib.

PENDANT CONTROL

A hand held set of motion controls attached to a crane or hoist by an extension cable to provide remote operation. Particularly used with some types of bridge cranes and power perated chain blocks.

PERSONNEL AND MATERIALS HOIST

A powered builder’s hoist which hoists personnel, goods or materials.

PIGSTY

A method of placing bearers on top of each other at right angles to provide a stable temporary support for a load.

PIN-JIB CRANE

See ‘lattice boom crane’

See ‘calibrated chain’.

PLATE CLAMP

A purpose designed appliance for lifting steel plate and similar items.

PLATE SHACKLE

A shackle with two side plates used to connect boom pendants.

PODGER SPANNER

A spanner with a tapered handle used to field bolt structural steel members.

POWER TAKE-OFF WINCH

A winch powered by the engine of the vehicle to which it is attached.

PORTAL BOOM CRANE

A powered jib or boom crane mounted on a portal frame that is supported  on runways allowing the crane to travel. Commonly used in waterside ports.

PREFORMED ROPE

FSWR where the spiral of the strands and wires is formed before the rope is laid up.

PROOF-COIL CHAIN

Unmarked chain of uncertain grade and construction.

PROTECTIVE DEVICE

A device used with a suspended scaffold which will arrest the descent and support a cradle or boatswain’s chair in the event of a failure of a suspension rope or scaffolding hoist.

PURCHASE

A series of sheaves reeved up to form a mechanical advantage in the FSWR.

PURLIN

A longitudinal member spanning between roof trusses or beams to which roofing sheets are fixed.

RL

See ‘ordinary lay’

RSJ

Rolled steel joist.

RADIUS

The distance between the centre of a circle and its outside edge.

REEVE

To thread rope through lifting gear such as sheaves or put one eye through the other for slinging.

REEVE FACTOR

The factor by which the WLL of a sling is adjusted to give its SWL for a particular manner in which the sling is reeved.

REGULAR LAY

See ‘ordinary lay’

REMOTE-RELEASE SHACKLE

A purpose designed shackle with an operating rope enabling it to be disconnected by a person standing below the lifting point. Often used to lift columns during steel erection.

RIGGING

The use of mechanical load shifting equipment and associated gear to move, place or secure a load including plant, equipment or members of a building or structure and to ensure the stability of those members, and for the setting up and dismantling of cranes and hoists, other than the setting up of a crane or hoist which only requires the positioning of integral outriggers or stabilisers

RIGGING SCREW

An enclosed device with an anchorage point and a threaded rod in each end. Used to tension an FSWR or to provide fine adjustment to a sling assembly.

RIGHT HAND LAY

A method of rope construction where the strands are laid up in a clockwise direction. Sometimes called a ‘Z twist’ because the strands run in the same direction as the central part of the letter Z.

ROOF RIG

See ‘suspension rig’.

ROOSTER SHEAVE

The head sheave for the auxiliary winch on the top of the boom head of a hydraulic boom crane.

ROUGH TERRAIN CRANE

A mobile crane designed to operate on unimproved natural terrain and disturbed terrain of construction sites.

ROUND SLING

An endless synthetic fibre sling constructed with a circular cross-section.

RUNNING GEAR

Flexible ropes which run over sheaves or drums and the gear used with such ropes.

S

The symbol used to indicate seale construction in an FSWR.

S TWIST

See ‘left hand lay’

SF

The symbol used to indicate seale filler wire in the construction of an FSWR.

SW

The symbol used to indicate seale warrington construction in an FSWR.

SWL

Safe working load.

SAFE WORKING LOAD

The maximum load which may be applied to a crane, hoist, rope, chain or sling for particular conditions of use.

SAFETY HARNESS

A body harness to which a lanyard or inertia reel can be attached to protect a person from falling or arrest a fall.

SAFETY HOOK

A hook provided with a safety latch across its throat intended to prevent a sling being accidentally dislodged.

SAFETY LINE

A horizontal rope or webbing anchored to two or more points of a building or structure and tensioned to provide an anchorage for a person wearing a safety harness to attach a lanyard or inertia reel.

SAG ROD

A stiffening member fixed between purlins or girts, generally at their mid span.

SEALE

A multi-layered strand construction method in FSWR where equal sized wires in one layer are laid over an equal number of smaller equal sized wires in the next layer.

SEALE WARRINGTON

A multi-layered strand construction method in FSWR where a seale laid layer is laid over a warrington laid centre.

SCAFFOLD

A temporary structure specifically erected to support access platforms or working platforms.

SCAFFOLDING HOIST

A serial hoist used with a suspension rope to raise and lower a cradle or boatswain’s chair during normal operation.

SCISSOR HOIST

An elevating work platform where the platform is raised and lowered using a scissor mechanism.

SECONDARY ROPE

A rope sometimes used on a suspended scaffold which does not normally support the cradle but which is rigged for use with a protective device.

SEIZING

A lashing for holding two ropes, or two parts of a rope together. Common types include round, square, flat, racking, throat and end seizings.

SENHOUSE SLIP

A tongued quick release device for chains or ropes. Often used to secure the anchor of a vessel.

SERVING

Winding marline, twine or annealed wire tightly around a rope, usually to protect a splice from damage and to protect the user’s hands from cuts.

SHEAVE

A grooved wheel or roller over which a rope or chain passes.

SHEERLEGS

A derrick like appliance consisting of two legs in an ‘A’ formation, with a sheave block fixed to its apex and the framework stabilised with guys.

SHORT SPLICE

A method of joining two ends of fibre rope. It is used where the spliced section does not have to travel over a sheave.

SHROUD LAID

A method of constructing a fibre rope using four strands layed around a core.

SIMPLY SUPPORTED BEAM

A beam which is fixed at each end.

SINGLE LADDER

A non-self supporting portable ladder whose length cannot be adjusted.

SINGLE WHIP

A fibre rope tackle where both the upper and lower blocks have single sheaves (two single blocks).

SISAL

Vegetable fibre obtained from the sisal plant. Sometimes used to construct natural fibre ropes.

SLEWING

The rotation of a crane’s boom or jib in the horizontal plane.

SLEWING CRANE

A crane with a boom or jib which has slewing capability.

SLEWING MOBILE CRANE

A powered mobile slewing crane. It does not refer to a front-end loader, backhoe, excavator or similar equipment when configured for crane operation.

SLING

Detachable lifting gear made from FSWR, natural fibre, chain, or synthetic fibre.

SNATCH BLOCK

A sheave block with a drop side to permit the bight of a rope to be placed or removed without reeving it through.

SNATCH LOADING

The sudden application of power to lift a load, causing large impact forces on the load and the running gear.

SNIGGING

Dragging a sling or dragging a load.

SNOTTER

A fibre rope sling.

SPANISH WINDLASS

A dangerous method of twitching tight the parts of a rope by placing a bar between them and taking several turns.

SPREADER BAR

A rigid member used to connect two trolleys from which a scaffold is suspended. It keeps the suspension points aligned when the cradle or working platform is traversed.

SPREADER BEAM

A beam with a central lifting attachment and with slinging points at each end. Used to reduce the angle of slings or to sling loads with large surface areas or to reduce the strain on a load.

SPECIAL DUTY WORKING PLATFORM

A platform on a scaffold designed for live loads greater than 675kg per bay.

SOCK

See ‘cable pulling stocking’.

SOFT EYE

See ‘bald eye’.

STANDING GEAR

Ropes such as guys and stays which do not run or work over sheaves or drums, and the gear used with such ropes.

STATIC LINE

See ‘safety line’.

STEP LADDER

A self-supporting portable ladder of fixed length having flat steps or treads and hinged back legs.

STIFF-LEG DERRICK

A derrick crane stabilised by rigid backstays and sleepers.

STOCKING

See ‘cable pulling stocking’.

STRAND

A number of wires or fibres layed in a spiral which are then layed up with other strands to form a rope.v

STRETCHING SCREW

See ‘turnbuckle’.

STRONGBACK

A temporary member fixed to a load to strengthen or stiffen it during lifting.

STROP

An endless sling.

Chain constructed with a stud across the centre of each link. Commonly used for marine purposes, the stud prevents the chain from jamming when it comes out of ships’ lockers. Unsuitable for general lifting purposes.

SUPER DUTY HOIST

A materials tower hoist with a WLL greater than one tonne. It is sometimes constructed as a dual tower with a materials platform in one tower and a concrete bucket in the other.

SUSPENDED SCAFFOLD

A scaffold incorporating a suspended platform which can be raised and lowered in normal use, including a boatswain’s chair.

SUSPENSION RIG

The portion of a suspended scaffold (including a trolley track) which is mounted at a higher level than the cradle and which supports and positions the cradle. Sometimes called a ‘roof rig’.

SUSPENSION ROPE

A rope used in a suspended scaffold to support a cradle.

SWAGED FITTING

A metallic fitting attached to FSWR using radial pressure to form an eye.

SWING STAGE

A suspended scaffold with a single row of suspension ropes.

SWIVEL

A rotating item of lifting gear which can rotate without spinning the rope, hook or load.

SYNTHETIC FIBRE

Manufactured fibre used in the construction of fibre ropes and slings, such as polyamide (nylon), polyester, polyethylene, polypropylene, etc.

T

Symbol indicating Grade 80 chain.

t

Symbol for tonne.

TFB

Tapered flange beam.

TACKLE

Fibre rope reeved through sheaves to form a mechanical advantage.

TAGLINE

A fibre rope attached to a suspended load to control the load during lifting.

TAPERED FLANGE BEAM

A largely obsolete type of steel I-beam. UB’s are now generally used.

TARE WEIGHT

The unloaded weight of a crane, lifting box or other container. It is also called then ‘self-weight’.

TELESCOPING

The extension or retraction of a crane’s boom or jib by the movement of the boom or jib sections during normal operation. A feature of most hydraulic boom cranes.

THIMBLE

A grooved piece of metal, circular or pear-shaped, used to protect an eye splice. It forms a ‘hard eye’.

TONNE

A unit for measuring mass (or weight). 1000kg equals 1 tonne.

TOWER CRANE

A boom or jib crane mounted on a tower structure.

TRACK-MOUNTED CRANE

A mobile crane mounted on a crawler track base. It is not usually fitted with outriggers.

TRAVEL

Movement of a complete crane along a surface or track.

TRAVEL TOWER

A boom-type EWP mounted on a truck tray.

TRAVERSE

Movement of a crab or other part of a crane along runways forming part of the crane structure, or horizontal movement of a scaffold platform hung from or suspended from a trolley track.

TRAVERSING ROPE

A fibre rope used with a suspended scaffold or hung scaffold supported from a trolley track to provide controlled horizontal movement of the platform. Also the rope used to traverse the fox across the main cable of a flying fox.

TRESTLE LADDER

A portable hinged self-supporting ladder designed and intended to support scaffold planks.

TRUCK-MOUNTED CRANE

A mobile crane mounted on a truck-type chassis and cab system, with the crane base forming part of the truck chassis.

TUCK

A rope strand tail passed under a strand in the construction of a splice.

TURNBUCKLE

An open framed attachment with an anchorage and threaded rod at each end used to tension a rope or to provide fine adjustment.

UB

Universal beam.

UC

Universal column.

UNDERWOUND

Rope winding on and off the underside of a winch drum.

UNION SCREW

See turnbuckle.

UNIVERSAL BEAM

An I-section steel beam commonly used in steel structures.

UNIVERSAL COLUMN

An I-section steel column commonly used in steel structures.

VEHICLE LOADING CRANE

A powered slewing crane mounted on a vehicle for the principal purpose of loading and unloading the vehicle.

W

Symbol used to indicate a warrington construction in an FSWR.

WLL

Working load limit.

WALKING

Mobiling a load with track mounted cranes.

WARPING DRUM

A powered winch with a dished drum used with a fibre or wire rope which is turned around the drum using friction to lift or haul a load. Also called a ‘capstan winch’.

WARRINGTON

A multi-layered strand construction method for FSWR where the strand is laid up parallel with alternate large and small wires in one layer.

WEBBING SLING

A flat woven synthetic fibre sling.

WHIP UPON WHIP

A fibre rope tackle with two moveable single blocks and one fixed single block.

WHIPPING

A method of preventing the end of a rope from unlaying by securing yarn, marline, twin or wire around it. Forms of whipping used with fibre ropes include Common whipping, American whipping, West-Countryman’s whipping and Palm-and-Needle whipping.

WINCH

An appliance which provides a means of hoisting or hauling a load.

WIRE

A single continuous steel filament. In FSWR, a number a wires make up a strand, and several strands form a rope.

WIRE ROPE GRIP

A removable device incorporating nuts and bolts designed to be fixed to FSWR.

WORK CAGE

A suspended scaffold cradle supported by a single suspension rope. Usually designed for one person.

WORK BOX

A crane lifted box designed to carry personnel and provide them with a working platform. Often used to service tower crane booms and during large-scale steel erection.

WORKING LOAD LIMIT

The maximum load which can be applied under general conditions of use to a crane, hoist, rope, chain, sling or item of lifting gear.

WORMING

The laying of lengths of spun yarn into the valleys between the strands of a rope to make the rope completely circular before it is served.

Z TWIST

See right hand lay.

ROLLED STEEL JOIST

A structural steel member with an I-section, now largely superceded by universal beams (UB’s) and universal columns (UC’s).

cm

Symbol for centimeter.

EYE SPLICE

A splice in the end of a rope which forms an eye.

FALLS

The separate parts of rope in a purchase or tackle.